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Blausen Medical
Blausen Medical

Blausen Medical

Medically accurate and informative 3D animations

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Tumor Mutational Burden

Tumor Mutational Burden, or TMB, has the potential to be used as a biomarker. It is used to measure the number of mutations found in a tumor. The mutations in a tumor lead to the derivation of neoantigens, which are proteins that result from changes to the cell’s genetic makeup in cancer and can be recognized as foreign by the immune system. The higher the TMB, the greater the odds one of the mutations will create a neoantigen that will be recognized by activated T-cells. In the presence of accumulated somatic mutations, or TMB, in cancer, expression of some neoantigens activates cytotoxic T cells. Ideally, these cytotoxic T cells will recognize target peptides presented on tumor cells and cause tumor cell lysis. However, the presence of immune checkpoint molecules, such as PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4 can inhibit T-cell activity. Therefore, inhibition of immune checkpoints has been suggested as a way to enhance neoantigen-specific T-cell reactivity. Both TMB and neoantigen burden are being explored for use as predictive biomarkers in patients given checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapies.

Duration: 01:31
Licence: CC - Attribution
Original Language: English
Published: 8/9/2019
Diseases and Conditions: Cancer / Tumor
Format: 3D Animation

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Tumor Mutational Burden

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