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Blausen Medical
Blausen Medical

Blausen Medical

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2010

Aterectomia

Il cuore è un muscolo che pompa costantemente sangue a tutto il corpo. Le arterie coronarie forniscono al cuore il sangue ricco di ossigeno e di sostanze nutritive che gli servono per funzionare correttamente. In alcuni casi, e per molte ragioni, i depositi di grasso, chiamati placche, possono accumularsi all'interno delle arterie, riducendo il loro diametro e ostruendo il passaggio del sangue. Queste placche compromettono la capacità delle arterie di portare ossigeno e nutrienti al cuore e a tutto l'organismo. Aterectomia è un termine generico che indica un gruppo di interventi utilizzati per aprire le arterie intasate, attraverso lo schiacciamento o la frantumazione delle placche. Durante un intervento di aterectomia, viene fatta un'incisione nella parte superiore dell'arteria femorale, in cui viene inserito un filo guida di metallo e fatto scorrere fino al punto in cui c'è l'ostruzione. Un catetere appuntito dotato di una lama viene quindi inserito lungo il filo guida. Ci sono tre importanti varianti di aterectomia, per ognuna delle quali si utilizza una lama diversa. L'aterectomia rotazionale è un comune tipo di aterectomia. Con questo procedimento, il catetere è montato su una pietra di diamante e guidato fino all'ostruzione. Mentre la pietra gira una velocità molto elevata, frantuma la placca indurita e la riduce in piccolissime particelle che vengono eliminate naturalmente dall'organismo senza alcun pericolo. L'aterectomia direzionale serve invece per rimuovere i depositi di grassi meno duri. Dopo l'inserimento del catetere, viene gonfiato un palloncino lungo il catetere che spinge la lama verso la placca. La lama asporta la placca e la inserisce in un particolare contenitore. Il palloncino viene poi sgonfiato e la placca rimossa insieme al contenitore, quando viene tolto il catetere. L'estrazione transluminale è un dispositivo con uno spazio vuoto che non usa lame rotanti per asportare la placca, ma un tubo che la aspira attraverso lo spazio vuoto presente sul catetere.

Duration: 02:15
Licence: CC - Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives
Original Language: Italian
Published: 1/19/2016
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Aterectomia

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